Figure 1.

Biphasic response of dendritic cells to Plasmodium blood-stage infection in rodents. (a) Early on during infection, engagement of TLR-9 by hemozoin and interaction with infected red blood cells may result in dendritic-cell maturation. Mature dendritic cells present antigen to T cells and induce their activation. Activated T cells proliferate and migrate into primary B-cell follicles where they provide help for antibody production by B cells. (b) With increasing parasitemia, more and more myeloid dendritic cells in the spleen are paralyzed through ingestion of increasing amounts of hemozoin, with negative effects on downstream T-cell and B-cell responses.

Urban and Todryk Journal of Biology 2006 5:4   doi:10.1186/jbiol37
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