Additional data file 2.

Sequence alignment of the activation loop sequences of AGC subfamily kinases (PKAα and PKCα, which are not thought to be activated by LKB1) with the activation loop residues of the AMPK/SNF1 subfamily of protein kinases. The methods used and color-coding are as in Additional data file 1. The threonine residues corresponding to Thr172 of AMPK ('P') and other residues mentioned in the text are indicated with downward arrows. All sequences are from humans, except AtSnRK1-α1, AtSnRK1-α1 and ScSnf1, which are the Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSnRK1, SNF1-related kinase-1) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScSnf1) homologs of AMPK. Although the human, A. thaliana and S. cerevisiae homologs, as well as the PKAα and PKCα kinases, are known to be activated by phosphorylation of the threonine residue equivalent to Thr172, it has yet to be established whether the other AMPK subfamily members (NuaK1, NuaK2, BrsK1, BrsK2, SIK, QIK, QSK, MELK and PAR1A) are activated by phosphorylation at this residue, and whether LKB1:STRAD:MO25 complexes can mediate this phosphorylation.

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Hawley et al. Journal of Biology 2003 2:28   doi:10.1186/1475-4924-2-28